Glaucoma is an eye condition where your optic nerve is damaged by the pressure of the fluid inside your eye. Most types of glaucoma have no symptoms, so a regular eye test is the only way to know you have the condition. Treatment with drops can often prevent glaucoma causing sight loss.

Glaucoma is the name given to a group of eye conditions that cause permanent sight loss by damaging your optic nerve.

You may not notice any difference in your vision because glaucoma affects your peripheral vision (also known as your side vision) first. As your peripheral vision is not as sensitive as your central vision, it’s difficult to notice any early changes to your vision – but your sight is being damaged.

There is no treatment to restore sight loss caused by glaucoma but treatments, such as eye drops and laser surgery, can help prevent sight loss from happening.

Causes of glaucoma

Glaucoma can be caused by raised eye pressure or a weakness in your optic nerve. Your eye needs a certain amount of pressure to keep the eyeball healthy and in the right shape. But if the pressure is too high, it can cause your optic nerve to become damaged at the point where it leaves your eye.


Types of glaucoma

Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG)

Primary open angle glaucoma is the most common type of glaucoma. It’s a chronic condition which means the damage to your optic nerve and changes to your sight happen very slowly over time.

Acute angle closure glaucoma

Acute angle glaucoma happens when your eye pressure rises very suddenly. It’s very painful and can causes permanent damage to your sight if it’s not treated quickly.

Secondary glaucoma

This is when glaucoma occurs as a result of another eye condition, an operation, injury or medication.

Congenital glaucoma

Congenital glaucoma is a very rare condition that affects young babies. It’s usually diagnosed in early years and managed by specialist clinics.


All treatment for glaucoma aims to lower your eye pressure to prevent damage to your optic nerve and your sight. Treatment to lower your eye pressure usually starts with eye drops, and for most people with glaucoma, this is all the treatment they will ever need.
Sometimes, laser treatment or surgery may also be needed to help control your eye pressure and prevent sight loss. Your ophthalmologist (hospital eye doctor) will be able to discuss the best treatment for you.